Tag Archives: processes

Retort and Retorting – Free Online Technical Information

This example of a white paper from the Retort.Com website discusses the 4 types of retort processes, namely

. Saturated Steam – direct steam heating
. Water Immersion (Rotary and Static) – indirect steam heating
. Water Spray (Rotary and Static) – indirect steam heating
. Steam-Air (Rotary and Static) – direct steam heating

Retort Processes 1

from: retorts.com
(click image for full story online)

Each process is described in a few simple paragraphs and illustrated with a photograph. The pros and cons are then fully contrasted in a table for each process.

Maybe more useful than this paper is the other 13 white papers on many aspects of retorting on the site.

Long Life Dairy, Food and Beverage Products – Free Online Technical Manual

Reputable equipment manufacturers, especially the multi national ones are repositories of the state of the art process and equipment technology in the areas in which the work. This information is available to their customers during the installation of plant and is sometimes published and available to the public.

A case in point is the APV White Paper on Long Life Dairy, Food and Beverage Products.

View of information on tubular sterilisers in APV Long Life Dairy, Food and Beverage Products White Paper

from: APV
(click image for full story online)

The white paper covers a wide range of information both from a theoretical, process and equipment viewpoint.

The outline below indicates the content of the paper but not the content which is broad including for instance 6 other process technologies with the tubular steriliser described above. While the information is of course in line with APV’s processes and equipment, it still gives a good overview of the Long Life Dairy sector.

  • Introduction to long life dairy, food and beverage products
  • Microbiology
  • Process classification
  • Process evaluation
  • Choosing the right process
  • Various aseptic UHT systems
  • The Pure-Lac process
  • Comparison between different systems
  • Process controls
  • Product development
  • This is really worthwhile information and APV should be credited with sharing it.

    Small and Medium Scale Fruit Juice Processing – Free Online Technical Manual

    This 220 page book by Bates, Moris & Crandall is available free online via http://bit.ly/FBRDH1

    This book covers an extremely wide range of juice processing technologies for a large number of fruits and is published by the Food and Agricultural Organisation.



    Principles and practices of small - and medium - scale fruit juice processing.jpg


    from: FAO
    (click image for full story online)


    This review was originally published in Food Processing Africa.

    The book starts with background information that includes history, value of juice, definitions, standards, morphology, composition and safety. It then addresses raw materials including cultivars, seasonality and post harvest handling.

    A general description of fruit juice manufacturing, is followed by detailed discussion of juice processing principles focussing on the stabilisation/preservation processes, namely refrigeration, freezing, canning, hot fill, aseptic processing, sterile filtration, chemical preservatives, concentration, jelly and jam manufacture, wine making, dehydration and vacuum drying.

    The second half of the book presents very practical and detailed information on specific juice products focussing on citrus, grape, apple, pear, peach, apricot, plums, cranberry, strawberry, blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, cherry, pineapple, mango, passion fruit, guava, papaya, guanabana, acerola, naranjilla, carambola, lychee and banana. The book also covers tomato and carrot juices and complementary products where juices and pulps are an ingredient including jams, jellies, syrups, smoothies, dairy, Sports drinks and even the use of supplements as equipoise that help with athletic performance.

    Throughout the material is well presented with photographs, tables, diagrams and flowsheets. While the scientific base is given, the focus is on practical descriptions of industrial process at a very detailed level.

    A disappointing feature is the limited focus on process management and commercialisation. The reader would do well to use a book such as “Setting up and Running a Small Fruit or Vegetable Processing Enterprise” to address these.

    The book ends with a large set of references.



    There are a number of articles focussing on new processes at FoodProcessing.com, that make interesting reading.

    Food Processing.jpg

    While these articles are interesting its also worth your while to bookmark this site, subscribe to its feeds and even join up for their monthly electronic journal – all for free!

    The Future of Food Processing: Mixing at the Speed of Sound

    The Future of Food Processing: A New Way of Dehydrating

    The Future of Food Processing: High Pressure Beats the Heat
    Food processes promise greener processing, cleaner labels and higher-quality food

    Turning up the heat in thermal processing

    How To Brew Beer According To GEA

    GEA the multination food and brewing equipment company has a sophisticated presentation of how beer is brewed.


    How to make_ beer.jpg

    from: GEA
    (click image to run presentation)


    The presentation consists of 17 pages which represent Unit Operations in the brewing process. Each page has short and simple text explaining the process, clickable animations of processes, photographs of real equipment, links to suppliers and often a link to related expanded information.

    The presentation is controlled through forward and backward links or a flowsheet like summary of the brewing process.

    Although this is of course a tool to advertise GEA and its business it is informative and gives a view of the state of the art in brewing.


    Free Online Information – Fruit Juice Processing

    For a really detailed and technologically strong document on the production of all kinds of juice there is nothing to beat this free publication on the FAO site.


    Principles and practices of small - and medium - scale fruit juice processing.jpg

    from: FAO
    (click image for full story online)


    This is an immensely informative book that covers all technologies from the simplest hand processing to the state of the art aseptic systems.

    It provides contacts to suppliers and links to other information. It is, however, a bit light on the practical things such as factory design, process management, business design etc. Petrer Fellows’ book on Fruit and Vegetable processing, can probably be used by the new entrepreneur to supplement this technological information.