Tag Archives: jam

The Manual on Home-based Fruit and Vegetable Processing – Free Online Information

This is probably the best technical information I have seen aimed at the training of small scale vegetable and fruit processors. The first book covers the principles of post-harvest handling, storage and processing of fruits and vegetables while the second provides recipes and guidance to put these principles into practice.

 click image for free acces to these books

The books We’re developed for trainers working with household processors in Afghanistan, but the information is so comprehensive that it will be useful for a range of users including the new small scale food processing enterprise.

The first book of 85 pages covers the following in detail, using a clear and simple style supported by many photographs and drawings.





  • Principles of food preservation 
  • Overview of fruit and vegetable processing techniques
  • Summary of small-scale fruit and vegetable processing techniques
  • Processing pre-treatments for fruit and vegetables 
  • Description of processing methods for fruit and vegetables  



The second book of around 90 pages covers the detail of producing a whole range of products as listed below from the table of contents:


  • Processing outline for dried fruit and vegetable
  • Dried tomato 
  • Dried apricots
  • Dried onions
  • Dried apples


  • Processing outline for Jam and Jelly 
  • Fruit jam or jelly – process details and quality 
  • Apricot jam
  • Carrot and lemon jam
  • Cherry jam
  • Mulberry jam
  • Apple jam
  • Apple jelly


  • Processing outline for sauce and chutney
  • Sauce and chutney – process details and quality assurance
  • Italian style tomato sauce
  • Italian style tomato sauce
  • Tomato paste
  • Tomato sauce or ketchup
  • Tomato puree or simple concentrate
  • Tomato concentrate (non-cook method) 
  • Coriander chutney (chatni gashnizeh)
  • Vegetable chutney
  • Tomato chutney (Chatni Badenjani Romi)
  • Chili chutney (Chatni Morchi Sorkh/Sabz )


  • Processing outline for lactic acid fermented pickles (atchar)
  • Fermented pickles – process details and quality assurance
  • Pickled cucumbers
  • Mixed pickles
  • Pumpkin pickle 


  • Process outline for fruit and vinegar
  • Fruit vinegar – quality assurance and processing notes
  • Tomato vinegar
  • Mulberry vinegar

If you have any interest in processing vegetables and fruit, these books are really highly recommended.

Fruit Processing Toolkit – Free Online Manual

This Toolkit is online on the FAO’s INPhO website (International Network of Post Harvest Operations).

It is a comprehensive collection of information that could be used by a range of people from the new entrepreneur looking to understand fruit products and processors to a processors considering expansion into new products.

FAO Fruit Processing Toolkit 1

from: INPhO
(click image for full story online)

It is a comprehensive presentation covering a wide range of fruits, products and information. It is well illustrated with flowsheets and gives detailed information on processes. It presents recipes for different fruits and products and has a good list of references as well as a comprehensive list of equipment suppliers.

To me the only problem is that this information has to be consulted online, which is a problem for those users who don’t have suitable connectivity.

Making Jams, Jellies & Fruit Preserves – Free Online Technical Manual

This book by Barbara H. Ingham is available online via http://bit.ly/FBRDH2.

This 65 page book gives comprehensive information on the basis of jam, jelly and preserve making as well as a large number of recipes. Being an output of the University of Wisconsin, the measurements are unfortunately in imperial units. However, if you are online, conversions are easily made using the google search with say “convert 134F to C” or other conversion tools.



from: University of Wisconsin
(click image for full story online)


This review was first published in African Food Processing.

The book starts with a discussion of the raw materials of jam making giving specific information on types of pectin and discussing the alternatives to sugar. This is followed by a description of the equipment and packaging material required.

It then gives a general description of the processes of making jam followed by tables which present recipes and conditions for a range of 30 jams. Jellies, low sugar jams, no sugar jams and refrigerator jams are presented in the same way. Preserves, conserves, marmalade, fruit butters and syrups are covered with detailed recipes.

There is information on freezing fruit when supply is high for later jam making, a trouble shooting table for jellies and the various methods of deciding when boilng should be stopped.

One important issue is that all recipes include the use of a boiling water canner. This is basically a hot water bath into which filled and sealed bottles are immersed for several minutes depending on the product and the process. This food hygiene process is not universally used. So long as jam has an appropriate water activity and is properly hot filled it will not be effected by microbial contamination. In fact this property is what lead to the development of jam as a means of preserving fruit.

Market Research for Agroprocessors

This book by Andrew Shepherd is available via http://bit.ly/FBRDH3 ( the full url is http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/agricult/ags/AGSM/markres.pdf)

This 100 page plus manual, published by the Food and Agricultural Organisation, presents a simple and logical look at how a small agroprocessor should go about making sure that there is a market for the product they intend producing. The contents of the manual indicate the scope of the information:

✓ Why do we need market research?
✓ How much can be sold, where and when?
✓ Researching consumer attitudes to your products.
✓ How can your product be made attractive to consumers?
✓ How should your product be distributed?
✓ How should you promote your product.
✓ Are your agroprocessing plans feasible?
✓ Will your business be profitable, and at what prices?
✓ Annex 1 – Questions for market research
✓ Annex 2 – A consumer questionnaire
✓ Further reading

The manual introduces each chapter with an outline of the main issues to be covered and provides “hint boxes” which present practical ideas and “word of warning boxes” that identifies particular problems. The sections on collecting information, distribution and advertising contain practical examples and illustrations.

The last two sections on feasibility and profitability are really important and often don’t get enough attention in the euphoria of a new product. The former goes through all (things such as production and seasonality, location of the farmers and buying costs, price variation, scope for farmers to increase production, labeling, distribution and promotion, licensing and regulations) that has to be in place to run a production business while the latter provides examples of costing and cash flow.

Each section ends with a “Reaching Conclusions” box, which identifies the new information the user should generate by following the manual. The manual is illustrated with cartoons and contains real examples of checklists for research and a consumer survey in the annexes.

The book ends with a set of references.


Processing Tomatoes for the Small Enterprise – Free Online Information

This 6 page summary is a short overview of processing tomatoes at the small scale farmer level. The production of powder, pulp, jam and ketchup using household, self built and small scale equipment is described.



from: Anancy
(click image for full story online)


It has a contact details for a few appropriate support organisations and it published by The ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) who could also provide more information.

Guide to Indigenous Fruit Processing – Free Technical Manual

This is one more of those amazing sources of information that the INTERNET provides for free. In the past if you were lucky enough to know about it you could probably request a copy. Now you GOOGLE and FTP a PDF for free!



from: CPWild
(click image for full story online)


Interestingly the information in this manual is the same proven science and technology!

I know Chris Hansmann well, from having worked together on a Cashew Apple Processing project, through the South African Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (SAAFoST) and for having worked for sister R&D organisations. I am therefore confident of the soundness of the science as well as the applicability of the technology presented.

The manual is comprehensive, starting with some of the principles of preservation, moving into the different processes that are applicable (both from a process and a product viewpoint), covering hygiene and nutritional aspects and ending on recipes to be used with these processes.

This is a book you should put in your Technology Directory/Folder for the time you need some good technical information on fruit processing, whether it be for indigenous or other fruit.


Ouendmor Ltd Moriba – African Food Processor

Another in the series which simply links to the websites of Food Processing Companies in Africa. It is hoped that the industry can benefit from a knowledge of who’s doing what – either through the establishment of new businesses or through trading.

Moriba is African based in the materials (bisap, tamirand, cashew, African herbs) and recipes it uses in its products, but manufacturing and retail is based in France. I am following up with them to understand what opportunities there are for other products eg Marula and for the retail business in the rest of sub Saharan Africa.

Moriba - Home.jpg

from: Moriba
(click image to visit the site)


contact details

It seems that the only way to make initial contact with Moriba is through imbedded emails on their website.

Homefoods Processing & Cannery Ltd – African Food Processor

The first and a series which simply links to the websites of Food Processing Companies in Africa. It is hoped that the industry can benefit from a knowledge of who’s doing what – either through the establishment of new businesses or through trading.

Homefoods produces palm oil, Gari and jams & jellies.

Homefoods Processing & Cannery Ltd..jpg

from: Homefoods
(click image for full story online)


contact details:

150/11, Off Odokor – Mallam Road,
Accra, Ghana W/A

P.O. Box KA 16519,
Airport – Accra
Ghana – West Africa

(00233) 21-303914

(00233) 21-318119

E-mail :

Small Scale Preservation of Acidic Foods

Preservation of foods is central to any food processing operation and specially important to small scale processors as it simplifies logistics. Food Technologists know that preserving acidic foods is safer and easier than low acidity foods and more appropriate to small scale processing.

Small-scale commercial preservation of acid foods_ Food Science Australia.jpg

Food Science a joint venture between CSIRO and the government of Victoria has published this as part of their online information for SME processors.

It defines the range of products and their acidity and defines processes that can be used. It focusses on the proven fact that so long as a foods equilibrium pH is below 4.5 there is no chance of food poisoning. It describes the various types of food spoilage organisms and compares their survival / activity under the conditions of processing.

Projects to Enterprises-2

I have spoken a few times about some of the projects that are run in food processing by development organisations. The objective is often to produce entrepreneurs from the unemployed poor.

In my experience this seldom works as it takes more than a process, some equipment and a few training programmes, to produce people who can successfully run a financially sustainable enterprise.


This photo, which I came across while organising my photos as part of my change from PCs to an Apple Macbook – a justifiable and enjoyable change by the way.

The project was set up to process local fruit into juice and jam as a means of creating jobs utilising local resources.

Compare the stock of sugar on the left of the photo with the production of jam and juice on the shelves! The project was run by bright people who had been on business courses but with 10 staff they were unable to sell their product (it wasn’t that they were out of stock because of overwhelming demand) and were spoilt by free supply (oversupply) of raw material by the developer which took any business like actions out of the project.