Tag Archives: fruit juice

Tetrapak Juice Pasteurisation – Never too Experienced to Learn

I was amazed to find this technical note on Tetrapak’s website.


Www tetrapak com DocumentBank White paper Optimized Pasteurization pdf

click the image to open the note

Since I first heard of Tetrapak in the 1970s I always saw them as highly technology and science focused and the leaders in liquid food processing. I and many others  accepted their process design parameters without question. Now after all these years Tetrapak has the foresight and courage to question whether what has become normal practice is really the best solution.

They apparently asked three questions can the heat load in pre-filling pasteurisation be decreased, will a lower pasteurisation temperature result in product change and can a larger design temperature difference be used.

This interesting paper seems to answer positively in all respects and reports a 1.3 kg per 1000l carbon footprint saving which indicated we will be seeing changes in our plants.

More Information From GEA

You might be thinking I have been employed by GEA to promote their website, but its just that once I am on an informative website like this, I see lots that's worth sharing.

click the image to visit the website

This article on fruit juice, only a few pages long, gives a bit on history of the market segment and the technology that went with it, something on health benefits, the current world situation and trends. After that is of course the bit that says how much GEA can help juice manufacturers.

Having linked to their separator, decanter and process based information, I also saw they have general information like that above and of course process information linked to other Unit Operations – so there will probably be more!


Decanter, Separator and Process Line Food Processes

GEA is an enormous processing equipment group that includes previous independent processors such as Westfalia, Wiegand, APV Kestner and Niro from the days when I still worked in processing.

click the image to visit the website

This website is that of the separator, decanter and process line part of their business. It presents a wealth of general information on many beverage and dairy processes with links to their equipment pamphlets. Each process is described in detail with a process flowsheet.

While you might be tempted to dismiss this as a source of information because of it equipment supplier link, I believe the information is general enough and unbiased to be useful.


Freeze Concentration – Equipment Series

A while back I wrote about pressure processing which was driven by the “fresher flavour” of juice that is not heated. Freeze concentration is driven by the same quality concerns and is an alternative to concentration by boiling off water. 

IFT Web Article on FReeze Concentrationclick the image to visit the website 

This article from the Institute of Food Technologists covers freeze concentration in a few pages giving information on the process and discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the technology 

Interesting is that the energy needed to melt a kg of ice is several times lower than that required to evaporate a kg of water. In these days of high energy costs and carbon footprints this would seem to be an advantage. However, the freeze concentrator can not be run in mutiple effect plants which allows an evaporator with sufficient effects to use almost the same energy. 

Even more disadvantageous, is that the freeze concentrator is often unable to reach the concentration required and a thermal evaporator has to be used as a finisher. 


High Pressure Processing

A few days ago, I came across the first product that I have seen that was marketed on the fact that it was High Pressure Processed. The brand name of these juices is ColdPress and the fact that they are produced using High Pressure Processing (HPP) is explained on their web page. HPP is claimed to “retain the pure taste, nutrition and antioxidants of fresh fruit”.

click the image to visit the website

One of the leaders in the commercial application of this technology is Avure who claim to have supplied over a half of all the commercial HPP equipment installed in the world.

click the image to visit the website

HPP is usually run as a batch process where the material in a sealed container is placed in a pressure vessel which is filled with water and pressurized to 600 MPa (87,000 psi) for a few minutes. Avure does note that it is possible to develop semi continuous systems using bulk pasteurization and aseptic packaging. I have always been a fan of the concept of filling and sealing a bottle, before sterilising the closed unit in a fail safe way. This is what has made the in bottle pasteurisation of beer such a successful process.

What is clear is that HPP is a costly process and that the product needs to have characteristics that make the consumer able to pay the premium price.

The Avure website has some good technical information on processing as well as a white paper that addresses the less technical business and quality issues in some detail.

click the image to visit the website

Interactive Fruit Juice Processing Spreadsheet

Here is an interesting online spreadsheet.

Fruit juice - Hyfoma.com-3.jpg

from: Hyfoma
(click image to interact with spreadsheet online)

As well as allowing the user to remove the instrumentation of text for clarrity

Fruit juice - Hyfoma.com-2.jpg

the instruments shown are linked through to a brief description of the instrument and its principle of operation.

Magnetic inductive - Hyfoma.com-2.jpg

Interesting from the Food Processing and the INTERNET information viewpoint!

Small and Medium Scale Fruit Juice Processing – Free Online Technical Manual

This 220 page book by Bates, Moris & Crandall is available free online via http://bit.ly/FBRDH1

This book covers an extremely wide range of juice processing technologies for a large number of fruits and is published by the Food and Agricultural Organisation.



Principles and practices of small - and medium - scale fruit juice processing.jpg


from: FAO
(click image for full story online)


This review was originally published in Food Processing Africa.

The book starts with background information that includes history, value of juice, definitions, standards, morphology, composition and safety. It then addresses raw materials including cultivars, seasonality and post harvest handling.

A general description of fruit juice manufacturing, is followed by detailed discussion of juice processing principles focussing on the stabilisation/preservation processes, namely refrigeration, freezing, canning, hot fill, aseptic processing, sterile filtration, chemical preservatives, concentration, jelly and jam manufacture, wine making, dehydration and vacuum drying.

The second half of the book presents very practical and detailed information on specific juice products focussing on citrus, grape, apple, pear, peach, apricot, plums, cranberry, strawberry, blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, cherry, pineapple, mango, passion fruit, guava, papaya, guanabana, acerola, naranjilla, carambola, lychee and banana. The book also covers tomato and carrot juices and complementary products where juices and pulps are an ingredient including jams, jellies, syrups, smoothies, dairy, Sports drinks and even the use of supplements as equipoise that help with athletic performance.

Throughout the material is well presented with photographs, tables, diagrams and flowsheets. While the scientific base is given, the focus is on practical descriptions of industrial process at a very detailed level.

A disappointing feature is the limited focus on process management and commercialisation. The reader would do well to use a book such as “Setting up and Running a Small Fruit or Vegetable Processing Enterprise” to address these.

The book ends with a large set of references.


More on EnWave Drying Technology

The previous post was based on the commercial press view of the technology – a little more looking gave another more technology and product based view.



Welcome to Enwave.jpg


from: EnWave
(click image for full story online)


EnWave seems to have been focussed on high value freeze drying application in active pharmaceutical dehydration and the dehydration of bulk food cultures, probiotics and fine biochemicals such as enzymes. So are now looking for high value food applications. They define the technology a bit further as a Radiant Energy Vacuum (“REV”) technology which combines microwave energy with the best shark vacuum pressure to produce high-speed dehydration.This offers the following process advantages:

    • high-speed processing in minutes rather than hours or days;
    • significant reduction in energy usage, start-up costs and machinery footprint;
    • improved retention of vitamins, nutrients, flavor and color;
      maintenance of the original texture of vegetables, fruits and meats;
    • reduced potential for large batch losses with continuous processing;
    • potential for creation of new product attributes such as “puffing”; and,
    • improved re-hydration characteristics