An in container sterilisation process has the real advantage that packaging takes place before sterilisation, negating any problems in packaging. A major disadvantage are the long cycle times and high heat inputs required which result in harsh product treatments.
The Shaka Process (not related to the Zulu King) offered by Packaging Technologies and Inspection
overcomes this by agitating the containers during sterilisation, thereby reducing heat transfer times for liquid and semi liquid products.
The massively reduced cycle times reduce product damage and batch turn around times. Although the equipment is more costly for a given batch size the faster turn around time increases the hourly capacity and reduces the cost.
This is rather high tech equipment but the principles should be borne in kind and could be borne in mind and might initiate some interesting process and equipment ideas.